"The sleep-wake and circadian cycles are influenced by light, particularly in the short-wavelength portion of the visible spectrum. Most personal light-emitting electronic devices are enriched in this so-called “blue” light. Exposure to these devices in the evening can disturb sleep. Interventions to reduce short-wavelength light exposure before bedtime may reduce adverse effects on sleep. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to examine the effect of wearing color-tinted lenses (e.g. orange or amber) in frames to filter short-wavelength light exposure to the eye before nocturnal sleep. Outcomes were self-reported or objective measures of nocturnal sleep. Relatively few (k = 12) studies have been done. Study findings were inconsistent, with some showing benefit and others showing no effect of intervention. Meta-analyses yielded a small-to-medium magnitude combined effect size for sleep efficiency (Hedge’s g = 0.31; 95\\% CI: −0.05, 0.66; I2 = 38.16\\%; k = 7), and a small-to-medium combined effect size for total sleep time (Hedge’s g = 0.32; 95\\% CI: 0.01, 0.63; I2 = 12.07\\%; k = 6). For self-report measures, meta-analysis yielded a large magnitude combined effects size for Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index ratings (Hedge’s g = −1.25; 95\\% CI: −2.39, −0.11; I2 = 36.35\\%; k = 3) and a medium combined effect size for total sleep time (Hedge’s g = 0.51; 95\\% CI: 0.18, 0.84; I2 = 0\\%; k = 3), Overall, there is some, albeit mixed, evidence that this approach can improve sleep, particularly in individuals with insomnia, bipolar disorder, delayed sleep phase syndrome, or attention-deficit hyperactive disorder. Considering the ubiquitousness of short-wavelength-enriched light sources, future controlled studies to examine the efficacy of this approach to improve sleep are warranted.Systematic review registration: PROSPERO 2018 CRD42018105854."
- Open Access